The brain is a soft, spongy mass of tissue. It is protected by:
The bones of the skull
Three thin layers of tissue (meninges)
Watery fluid (cerebrospinal fluid) that flows through spaces between the meninges and through spaces (ventricles) within the brain.
The brain directs the things we choose to do (like walking and talking) and the things our body does without thinking (like breathing). The brain is also in charge of our senses (sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell), memory, emotions, and personality.
A network of nerves carries messages back and forth between the brain and the rest of the body. Some nerves go directly from the brain to the eyes, ears, and other parts of the head. Other nerves run through the spinal cord to connect the brain with the other parts of the body.
Within the brain and spinal cord, glial cells surround nerve cells and hold them in place.
The three major parts of the brain control different activities:
Cerebrum: The cerebrum uses information from our senses to tell us what is going on around us and tells our body how to respond. It controls reading, thinking, learning, speech, and emotions.
The cerebrum is divided into the left and right cerebral hemispheres. The right hemisphere controls the muscles on the left side of the body. The left hemisphere controls the muscles on the right side of the body.
Cerebellum: The cerebellum controls balance for walking and standing, and other complex actions.
Brain stem: The brain stem connects the brain with the spinal cord. It controls breathing, body temperature, blood pressure, and other basic body functions.
Types of Primary Brain Tumors
When most normal cells grow old or get damaged, they die, and new cells take their place. Sometimes, this process goes wrong. New cells form when the body doesn't need them, and old or damaged cells don't die as they should. The buildup of extra cells often forms a mass of tissue called a growth or tumor.
Primary brain tumors can be benign or malignant:
Benign brain tumors do not contain cancer cells:
Usually, benign tumors can be removed, and they seldom grow back.
Benign brain tumors usually have an obvious border or edge. Cells from benign tumors rarely invade tissues around them. They don't spread to other parts of the body. However, benign tumors can press on sensitive areas of the brain and cause serious health problems.
Unlike benign tumors in most other parts of the body, benign brain tumors are sometimes life threatening.
Benign brain tumors may become malignant.
Malignant brain tumors (also called brain cancer) contain cancer cells:
Malignant brain tumors are generally more serious and often are a threat to life.
They are likely to grow rapidly and crowd or invade the nearby healthy brain tissue.
Cancer cells may break away from malignant brain tumors and spread to other parts of the brain or to the spinal cord. They rarely spread to other parts of the body.
The grade of a tumor refers to the way the cells look under a microscope:
Grade I: The tissue is benign. The cells look nearly like normal brain cells, and they grow slowly.
Grade II: The tissue is malignant. The cells look less like normal cells than do the cells in a Grade I tumor.
Grade III: The malignant tissue has cells that look very different from normal cells. The abnormal cells are actively growing (anaplastic).
Grade IV: The malignant tissue has cells that look most abnormal and tend to grow quickly.
Cells from low-grade tumors (grades I and II) look more normal and generally grow more slowly than cells from high-grade tumors (grades III and IV).
Over time, a low-grade tumor may become a highgrade tumor. However, the change to a high-grade tumor happens more often among adults than children.
There are many types of primary brain tumors. Primary brain tumors are named according to the type of cells or the part of the brain in which they begin. For example, most primary brain tumors begin in glial cells. This type of tumor is called a glioma.
Among adults, the most common types are:
Astrocytoma: The tumor arises from star-shaped glial cells called astrocytes. It can be any grade. In adults, an astrocytoma most often arises in the cerebrum.
Grade I or II astrocytoma: It may be called a low-grade glioma.
Grade III astrocytoma: It's sometimes called a high-grade or an anaplastic astrocytoma.
Grade IV astrocytoma: It may be called a glioblastoma or malignant astrocytic glioma.
Meningioma: The tumor arises in the meninges. It can be grade I, II, or III. It's usually benign (grade I) and grows slowly.
Oligodendroglioma: The tumor arises from cells that make the fatty substance that covers and protects nerves. It usually occurs in the cerebrum. It's most common in middle-aged adults. It can be grade II or III.
Among children, the most common types are:
Medulloblastoma: The tumor usually arises in the cerebellum. It's sometimes called a primitive neuroectodermal tumor. It is grade IV.
Grade I or II astrocytoma: In children, this lowgrade tumor occurs anywhere in the brain. The most common astrocytoma among children is juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma. It's grade I.
Ependymoma: The tumor arises from cells that line the ventricles or the central canal of the spinal cord. It's most commonly found in children and young adults. It can be grade I, II, or III.
Brain stem glioma: The tumor occurs in the lowest part of the brain. It can be a low-grade or high-grade tumor. The most common type is diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma.
When you're told that you have a brain tumor, it's natural to wonder what may have caused your disease. But no one knows the exact causes of brain tumors.
Doctors seldom know why one person develops a brain tumor and another doesn't. Researchers are studying whether people with certain risk factors are more likely than others to develop a brain tumor. A risk factor is something that may increase the chance of getting a disease.
Studies have found the following risk factors for brain tumors:
Ionizing radiation: Ionizing radiation from high dose x-rays (such as radiation therapy from a large machine aimed at the head) and other sources can cause cell damage that leads to a tumor. People exposed to ionizing radiation may have an increased risk of a brain tumor, such as meningioma or glioma.
Family history: It is rare for brain tumors to run in a family. Only a very small number of families have several members with brain tumors.
Researchers are studying whether using cell phones, having had a head injury, or having been exposed to certain chemicals at work or to magnetic fields are important risk factors. Studies have not shown consistent links between these possible risk factors and brain tumors, but additional research is needed.
The symptoms of a brain tumor depend on tumor size, type, and location. Symptoms may be caused when a tumor presses on a nerve or harms a part of the brain. Also, they may be caused when a tumor blocks the fluid that flows through and around the brain, or when the brain swells because of the buildup of fluid.
These are the most common symptoms of brain tumors:
Headaches (usually worse in the morning)
Nausea and vomiting
Changes in speech, vision, or hearing
Problems balancing or walking
Changes in mood, personality, or ability to concentrate
Problems with memory
Muscle jerking or twitching (seizures or convulsions)
Numbness or tingling in the arms or legs
If you have symptoms that suggest a brain tumor, you need a physical exam by a medical doctor and will be asked about your personal and family health history. You may have one or more of the following tests:
Neurologic exam: checks your vision, hearing, alertness, muscle strength, coordination, and reflexes. Your doctor also examines your eyes to look for swelling caused by a tumor pressing on the nerve that connects the eye and the brain.
MRI: A large machine with a strong magnet linked to a computer is used to make detailed pictures of areas inside your head. Sometimes a special dye (contrast material) is injected into a blood vessel in your arm or hand to help show differences in the tissues of the brain. The pictures can show abnormal areas, such as a tumor.
CT scan: An x-ray machine linked to a computer takes a series of detailed pictures of your head. You may receive contrast material by injection into a blood vessel in your arm or hand. The contrast material makes abnormal areas easier to see.
Angiogram: Dye injected into the bloodstream makes blood vessels in the brain show up on an x-ray. If a tumor is present, the x-ray may show the tumor or blood vessels that are feeding into the tumor.
Spinal tap: remove a sample of cerebro spinal fluid (the fluid that fills the spaces in and around the brain and spinal cord). This procedure is performed with local anesthesia. The doctor uses a long, thin needle to remove fluid from the lower part of the spinal column. A spinal tap takes about 30 minutes. You must lie flat for several hours afterward to keep from getting a headache. A laboratory checks the fluid for cancer cells or other signs of problems.
Biopsy: The removal of tissue to look for tumor cells is called a biopsy. A pathologist looks at the cells under a microscope to check for abnormal cells. A biopsy can show cancer, tissue changes that may lead to cancer, and other conditions. A biopsy is the only sure way to diagnose a brain tumor, learn what grade it is, and plan treatment.
Surgeons can obtain tissue to look for tumor cells in two ways:
Biopsy at the same time as treatment: The surgeon takes a tissue sample when you have surgery to remove part or all of the tumor.
Stereotactic biopsy: You may get local or general anesthesia and wear a rigid head frame for this procedure. The surgeon makes a small incision in the scalp and drills a small hole (a burr hole) into the skull. CT or MRI is used to guide the needle through the burr hole to the location of the tumor. The surgeon withdraws a sample of tissue with the needle. A needle biopsy may be used when a tumor is deep inside the brain or in a part of the brain that can't be operated on.
However, if the tumor is in the brain stem or certain other areas, the surgeon may not be able to remove tissue from the tumor without harming normal brain tissue. In this case, the doctor uses MRI, CT, or other imaging tests to learn as much as possible about the brain tumor.
People with brain tumors have several treatment options. The options are surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Many people get a combination of treatments.
The choice of treatment depends mainly on the following:
The type and grade of brain tumor
Its location in the brain
Your age and general health
For some types of brain cancer, the doctor also needs to know whether cancer cells were found in the cerebrospinal fluid.
TESTIMONIAL from a brain cancer patient treated with IPTLD
Results obtained by a patient treated with IPTLD ®.
When I start to treat a patient with cancer there are many questions in the patient mind.
Each patient is a challenge. The majority come with refractary disease to chemos, or advance stages searching for a miracle. Others come from failures with multiple treatments given at the same time.
Since I started to practice IPT I have always use IPTLD for my patients as the basic and main treatment. I am a strong beleiver that this treatment helps my patients. Some of my recent patients are influenced and want to have other therapies given at the same time and this on the long run is not going to produce the expected results. The cases presented in this Bulletin were only treated using my personal protocol of IPTLD that does not recommend the use of other therapies at the same time.
Treating brain cancer in adults is complicated, here I am presenting a case of a patient that after 8 IPTLD treatmetns at my Clinic had a very good response as you can read on the reports. Note that not all patients will respond the same way. Each patient must be evaluated and give a trial of IPTLD to find if his/her cancer respond.
In this CT Scan report from December 22, 2008 the patient had several brain lesions.
(Impression: Extensive intracranial metastasis, including parenchymal and dural based metastases. The pineal gland and the pituitary stalk are also enlarged, and most likely related to metastases as well. There is no hidrocephalus, no significant mass-effect or midline shift).
In this CT Scan report from February 11, 2009 the patient had a significant reduction in the number and size of the brain lesion.
(Impression: Multiple small enhancing lesion (presumably metastasic) are noted. Marked reduction in size of many lesions and total dissapearence of some.
The patient was treated with IPTLD ® plus homotoxicology treatments every seven days. Each patient treated with IPTLD® plus homotoxicology has a different response as the body conditions are different and unique for each patient and this includes the dose and combination protocol that will be used to treat the cancer.
See her video testimonial on YOUTUBE -ENGLISH- (January 2010)
See her testimonial on YOUTUBE - PORTUGUESE- (Janeiro 2010)